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**IMAGE:** This knot has Gauss code O1U2O3U1O2U3.

In his article “The Combinatorial Revolution in Knot Theory”, to appear in the December 2011 issue of the Notices of the AMS, Sam Nelson describes a novel approach to knot theory that has gained currency in the past several years and the mysterious new knot-like objects discovered in the process.

As Nelson reports in his article, mathematicians have devised various ways to represent the information contained in knot diagrams. One example is the Gauss code, which is a sequence of letters and numbers wherein each crossing in the knot is assigned a number and the letter O or U, depending on whether the crossing goes over or under. The Gauss code for a simple knot might look like this: O1U2O3U1O2U3.

In the mid-1990s, mathematicians discovered something strange. There are Gauss codes for which it is impossible to draw planar knot diagrams but which nevertheless behave like knots in certain ways. In particular, those codes, which Nelson calls *nonplanar Gauss codes*, work perfectly well in certain formulas that are used to investigate properties of knots. Nelson writes: “A planar Gauss code always describes a [knot] in three-space; what kind of thing could a nonplanar Gauss code be describing?” As it turns out, there are “virtual knots” that have legitimate Gauss codes but do not correspond to knots in three-dimensional space. These virtual knots can be investigated by applying combinatorial techniques to knot diagrams. Read the article here.

In mathematics, a knot is defined as a closed, non-self-intersecting curve that is embedded in three dimensions and cannot be untangled to produce a simple loop (i.e., the unknot). While in common usage, knots can be tied in string and rope such that one or more strands are left open on either side of the knot, the mathematical theory of knots terms an object of this type a “braid” rather than a knot. To a mathematician, an object is a knot only if its free ends are attached in some way so that the resulting structure consists of a single looped strand.

However, give me any closed loop knot and an extra dimension and I will show you an unknot (i.e., there are no knotted 1-dimensional spheres (strings) in dimension 4. Zeeman took this further and stated that any n-dimensional sphere is an unknot in a space of dimension higher than ). Read the proof here.